The Mafia Mayor
Moreover, it was shown that the parity of the initial number of players plays an important role. In particular, when the number of mafiosi is fixed and an odd player is added to the game and ties are resolved by coin flips , the mafia-winning chance do not drop but rise by a factor of approx. In live or videoconference  real-time play, the innocents typically win more often than game theory suggests. Several reasons for this have been advanced:.
If you're trying to feign shock or anger, it's much harder to do over a long period. People accused of something they're trying to hide will start out feigning outrage — 'How dare you ask me that? But, the Mafia can win in live play; their best chance of winning occurs when mafioso bond with their innocent neighbours and convince those neighbours to value that bond over dispassionate analysis. These additional roles are named differently in the many versions of Mafia, for thematic flavor , or historical reasons.
Also, the same role-name can have differing functions across different versions of the game. Players with these roles use their own night-phase to discover something about other players. Though the standard game now includes the basic Detective, these roles are optional, and games can exclude them entirely such as the stool pigeon variant, or Davidoff's original rules.
In Town of Salem , a version of Mafia, the Sheriff is a role which can interrogate people at night, and get to know their role. The Godfather and the Arsonist are immune to the detection of a Sheriff, and the Framer can frame a player to make them appear as a mafioso. Additional variations exist, sometimes with even more specialized or complicated abilities.vuveqazapequ.gq/1044.php
Mafia (party game)
There are many special roles, and many moderators design novel roles for each game. Some commercial variants ship with blank cards to allow this customization. The naming of various roles, factions, and other elements of play is theme-dependent and has limitless variation. Common alternative themes restyle the mafia as werewolves, cultists, assassins, or witches, with other roles being renamed appropriately. Over the years, players have created Mafia variants that include additional rules.
Some of these are listed here. If there are as many mafiosi as innocents in the day-phase then a mafia victory is declared immediately, under the original Mafia rules. Other variants suspend this rule, and only declare the game after every member of one faction has been eliminated: this makes the game easier to explain, and to run. Nominees for lynching may be allowed to make a speech in their own defense.
Usually, each player must vote, can only vote once and cannot vote for themselves. But some variants have a more complicated process of selecting players to be executed. Davidoff's original 'Mafia' allowed multiple day-time executions per day , each needing only a plurality to action. Voting variants abound , but any lynching usually requires an absolute majority of the electorate, or votes cast.
So the voting is usually not by secret ballot for multiple candidates with the highest vote count eliminated; it is more usual for the voting to be openly resolved either by:. Deadlocked elections can be resolved by lot  or by killing the player with the scapegoat special role. The special case of one mafioso and one innocent remaining can be decided randomly  or be ruled a Mafia win—this is more usual in live play. The Innocents can choose not to kill anybody during the day. Although commonly unsure of Mafia identities, the Innocents are more likely to randomly kill a mafioso than are the Mafia at night.
Therefore, not lynching anyone even at random will typically favor the Mafia. Some variants require all Mafia members to choose the same victim independently for a kill to succeed. This can be achieved in the following ways:. In some online versions of the game, a particular player the Godfather or a designated mafioso must send in the kill.
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Another variant requires the night-time vote to be secret and unanimous, but allows multiple players to be added to the execution queue to ensure unanimity. Multiple, independent groups of mafia or werewolves  act and win independently, giving faster game-play and the potential for cross-fire between the factions. In this variant, players are given two cards: the first contains their role, the second an attribute. Attributes were originally derived from roles that could apply to both Mafia and Innocent alignments such as Bulletproof cannot be killed at night , Mayor has two votes in the lynch , and Siamese Twins more commonly known as Siblings or Lovers.
The difference from a standard game of Mafia is that players are not initially assigned roles, but rather on each day are given the probabilities describing the game's current quantum state. Each player with a non-zero probability of being a seer or a werewolf performs the appropriate night actions which may not be effective if it is later determined that the player did not have that role. When a player is killed, the wave function collapses and the players are given updated probabilities. Traditional Mafia re-envisioned and heavily modified by the Copenhagen Game Collective to be played in a subway metro.
In this variation, players who are 'lynched' are kicked off the train at the next stop , and must wait in shame for the following train — a kind of 'afterlife' train — to join a second, interwoven game. A location-based mobile gaming variant for Android , designed for city center play. The two factions are: the Rebels, the majority; and the Spies, the informed minority. The rule-set replaces expulsions with scoring by round. Each player is assigned an individual mission each round.
Some missions are critical and if one of those fails, the round goes to the Spies, but only one player knows which missions are critical. In this standalone game published by Bezier Games, players only "sleep" and close their eyes for a single night at the beginning of the game. They then have a single day of discussion, with a single lynching. No players are eliminated as the game progresses.
There is no moderator, so everyone gets to participate as a member of the town or village. When playing this game, three more role cards are used than the number of players; when everyone is randomly dealt out their card the three extra ones placed in the middle of the table.
To begin the game one of the players, with eyes closed, will act as the "caller" on the single starting night, going through the nighttime roles once: Werewolves and Masons if in play will identify each other, the Seer will examine one player's card or two of the middle cards, the Robber will steal another player's role card and replace it with their own, the Troublemaker will blindly swap two players' role cards, the Insomniac wakes up to check if their role card has been swapped, etc.
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The game ends on a single lynching vote, with the villagers winning if a single werewolf is caught, and the werewolves winning if no werewolves are killed. This game can be played with as few as three players. Play time can be as quick as five minutes per game . This is an advanced version of Mafia that takes place during the Salem witch trials. It involves several different roles from multiple factions. Every single player is assigned a role. There are no "innocents" people who have no special role but are aligned with the Town. Besides the Mafia and the Town, there is also a separate, "neutral" faction whose roles are usually not aligned with either faction and have their own goals.
For example, the Executioner needs to get someone lynched during the day, the Jester's goal is to be hanged during the day must convince the town they are an evil role , the Survivor must simply stay alive until the end of the game, and the Arsonist must be the last person standing. Mafia can also be played online. Games can be played on IRC channels , where a bot assumes the role of a game moderator and the interaction of players is conducted via textual communication.
Since , many other Mafia game sites were formed. These sites are attempts at reproducing the live Mafia games, and the duration and the mechanics of the games are about the same as when the game is played traditionally. Playing mafia-like games online opens the possibility of long lasting games, such as the ones on forums. In such games, one day in real life usually corresponds to one day within the game, so players log in each morning to see who was killed during the night phase.
The online games have several advantages. There is no need to gather many people in the same room, so organizing and playing a game of Mafia is faster and more convenient. Removing the human moderator and the need for players to close their eyes removes the possibility of accidental revelation of information. Online play also allows role mechanics which would be too cumbersome to use in a physical version of the game.
Local officials are most at risk
A drawback of online play is the lack of direct face-to-face communication, which many consider the most important aspect of Mafia. Giuliani Vulnerability Study".
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Italy mourns 'fisherman-mayor' who stood up to the mafia
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Since , town councils have been dissolved for mafia infiltration. Last month, Italy's central government sacked the local administration of Corleone in Sicily, the fictional hometown of Mario Puzo's "Godfather" and the real birthplace of two of Cosa Nostra's most feared bosses. Italy's Senate approved a bill in June that would give police and magistrates more tools to crack down on threats, but the legislation has yet to be passed by the lower house.
In June, some local administrators who belong to Avviso Pubblico were joined by residents and state officials in a march in Polistena, Calabria, the heartland of the 'Ndrangheta, to show solidarity for those menaced by the mob. The 'Ndrangheta, which investigators say is the biggest cocaine broker in Europe, has racked up the most threats to public officials so far this year. Polistena's Mayor Michele Tripodi received a bullet in the mail in March.
The 'Ndrangheta burned the car of Rosario Rocca, mayor of Benestare, who said of his town: "The state is absent.