The Mafia Mayor
Moreover, it was shown that the parity of the initial number of players plays an important role. In particular, when the number of mafiosi is fixed and an odd player is added to the game and ties are resolved by coin flips , the mafia-winning chance do not drop but rise by a factor of approx. In live or videoconference  real-time play, the innocents typically win more often than game theory suggests. Several reasons for this have been advanced:.
If you're trying to feign shock or anger, it's much harder to do over a long period. People accused of something they're trying to hide will start out feigning outrage — 'How dare you ask me that? But, the Mafia can win in live play; their best chance of winning occurs when mafioso bond with their innocent neighbours and convince those neighbours to value that bond over dispassionate analysis. These additional roles are named differently in the many versions of Mafia, for thematic flavor , or historical reasons.
Also, the same role-name can have differing functions across different versions of the game. Players with these roles use their own night-phase to discover something about other players. Though the standard game now includes the basic Detective, these roles are optional, and games can exclude them entirely such as the stool pigeon variant, or Davidoff's original rules.
In Town of Salem , a version of Mafia, the Sheriff is a role which can interrogate people at night, and get to know their role. The Godfather and the Arsonist are immune to the detection of a Sheriff, and the Framer can frame a player to make them appear as a mafioso. Additional variations exist, sometimes with even more specialized or complicated abilities.
Mafia (party game)
There are many special roles, and many moderators design novel roles for each game. Some commercial variants ship with blank cards to allow this customization. The naming of various roles, factions, and other elements of play is theme-dependent and has limitless variation. Common alternative themes restyle the mafia as werewolves, cultists, assassins, or witches, with other roles being renamed appropriately. Over the years, players have created Mafia variants that include additional rules.
Some of these are listed here. If there are as many mafiosi as innocents in the day-phase then a mafia victory is declared immediately, under the original Mafia rules. Other variants suspend this rule, and only declare the game after every member of one faction has been eliminated: this makes the game easier to explain, and to run. Nominees for lynching may be allowed to make a speech in their own defense.
Usually, each player must vote, can only vote once and cannot vote for themselves. But some variants have a more complicated process of selecting players to be executed. Davidoff's original 'Mafia' allowed multiple day-time executions per day , each needing only a plurality to action. Voting variants abound , but any lynching usually requires an absolute majority of the electorate, or votes cast.
So the voting is usually not by secret ballot for multiple candidates with the highest vote count eliminated; it is more usual for the voting to be openly resolved either by:. Deadlocked elections can be resolved by lot  or by killing the player with the scapegoat special role. The special case of one mafioso and one innocent remaining can be decided randomly  or be ruled a Mafia win—this is more usual in live play. The Innocents can choose not to kill anybody during the day. Although commonly unsure of Mafia identities, the Innocents are more likely to randomly kill a mafioso than are the Mafia at night.
Therefore, not lynching anyone even at random will typically favor the Mafia. Some variants require all Mafia members to choose the same victim independently for a kill to succeed. This can be achieved in the following ways:. In some online versions of the game, a particular player the Godfather or a designated mafioso must send in the kill.
- Muddy Waters.
- Share your thoughts and debate the big issues.
- The resurrection of Palermo: how the mafia battlefield became a cultural capital.
- Cocoa at Midnight: The real life story of my time as a housekeeper (Lives of Servants).
- Why do criminals attack politicians?.
Another variant requires the night-time vote to be secret and unanimous, but allows multiple players to be added to the execution queue to ensure unanimity. Multiple, independent groups of mafia or werewolves  act and win independently, giving faster game-play and the potential for cross-fire between the factions. In this variant, players are given two cards: the first contains their role, the second an attribute. Attributes were originally derived from roles that could apply to both Mafia and Innocent alignments such as Bulletproof cannot be killed at night , Mayor has two votes in the lynch , and Siamese Twins more commonly known as Siblings or Lovers.
The difference from a standard game of Mafia is that players are not initially assigned roles, but rather on each day are given the probabilities describing the game's current quantum state. Each player with a non-zero probability of being a seer or a werewolf performs the appropriate night actions which may not be effective if it is later determined that the player did not have that role. When a player is killed, the wave function collapses and the players are given updated probabilities. Traditional Mafia re-envisioned and heavily modified by the Copenhagen Game Collective to be played in a subway metro.
In this variation, players who are 'lynched' are kicked off the train at the next stop , and must wait in shame for the following train — a kind of 'afterlife' train — to join a second, interwoven game. A location-based mobile gaming variant for Android , designed for city center play. The two factions are: the Rebels, the majority; and the Spies, the informed minority. The rule-set replaces expulsions with scoring by round. Each player is assigned an individual mission each round.
Some missions are critical and if one of those fails, the round goes to the Spies, but only one player knows which missions are critical. In this standalone game published by Bezier Games, players only "sleep" and close their eyes for a single night at the beginning of the game. They then have a single day of discussion, with a single lynching. No players are eliminated as the game progresses.
There is no moderator, so everyone gets to participate as a member of the town or village. When playing this game, three more role cards are used than the number of players; when everyone is randomly dealt out their card the three extra ones placed in the middle of the table.
To begin the game one of the players, with eyes closed, will act as the "caller" on the single starting night, going through the nighttime roles once: Werewolves and Masons if in play will identify each other, the Seer will examine one player's card or two of the middle cards, the Robber will steal another player's role card and replace it with their own, the Troublemaker will blindly swap two players' role cards, the Insomniac wakes up to check if their role card has been swapped, etc.
Mayor | Forum Mafia Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia
The game ends on a single lynching vote, with the villagers winning if a single werewolf is caught, and the werewolves winning if no werewolves are killed. This game can be played with as few as three players. Play time can be as quick as five minutes per game . This is an advanced version of Mafia that takes place during the Salem witch trials. It involves several different roles from multiple factions. Every single player is assigned a role. There are no "innocents" people who have no special role but are aligned with the Town. Besides the Mafia and the Town, there is also a separate, "neutral" faction whose roles are usually not aligned with either faction and have their own goals.
For example, the Executioner needs to get someone lynched during the day, the Jester's goal is to be hanged during the day must convince the town they are an evil role , the Survivor must simply stay alive until the end of the game, and the Arsonist must be the last person standing. Mafia can also be played online. Games can be played on IRC channels , where a bot assumes the role of a game moderator and the interaction of players is conducted via textual communication.
Since , many other Mafia game sites were formed. These sites are attempts at reproducing the live Mafia games, and the duration and the mechanics of the games are about the same as when the game is played traditionally. Playing mafia-like games online opens the possibility of long lasting games, such as the ones on forums. In such games, one day in real life usually corresponds to one day within the game, so players log in each morning to see who was killed during the night phase.
The online games have several advantages. There is no need to gather many people in the same room, so organizing and playing a game of Mafia is faster and more convenient. Removing the human moderator and the need for players to close their eyes removes the possibility of accidental revelation of information. Online play also allows role mechanics which would be too cumbersome to use in a physical version of the game.
Local officials are most at risk
A drawback of online play is the lack of direct face-to-face communication, which many consider the most important aspect of Mafia. Giuliani Vulnerability Study".
- The Proactive Leader: How To Overcome Procrastination And Be A Bold Decision-Maker.
- All Correct !.
- The Scottish Movie.
- Popular articles.
- Italy mourns 'fisherman-mayor' who stood up to the mafia?
- Mayor arrested in anti-mafia sweep.
- Mayors' lonely stand against the mafia | The Wider Image | Reuters.
The Smoking Gun. April 8, Archived from the original on February 14, Retrieved February 12, August 24, Archived from the original on February 4, Retrieved February 7, August 22, National Review. November 7, Official Finds No Repression in Haiti". April 3, March 21, National Law Journal. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 1, August 5, August 20, Retrieved June 6, Retrieved April 10, Retrieved June 8, Retrieved November 15, November 20, Retrieved August 2, January 14, October 5, Retrieved May 3, National Geographic Society.
Retrieved August 25, New York Post. The Telegraph. May 25, Retrieved May 19, The Independent. July 20, John Hall. Archived from the original on November 11, Retrieved August 3, Seeley "In G. Debate Today, Which Tack for Giuliani? Retrieved March 31, Retrieved March 30, April 9, Retrieved June 24, Archived from the original on October 19, The Disaster Center.
Retrieved May 25, Avrum Ehrlich, p. Archived from the original on October 12, Quinnipiac University. October 29, New York: Random House. October 21, Bureau of Justice Statistics. Archived from the original PDF on February 15, Retrieved December 5, Harvard Kennedy School Ash Center. Retrieved July 4, Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved October 24, Under the header, "Crime in the United States", click on a year, then use Table 6.
Durose December Rome: Istituto Nazionale di Statistica published Retrieved May 7, According to NYPD statistical analysis, crime in New York City took a downturn starting around that continued for many years, shattering all the city's old records for consecutive-year declines in crime rates.
PublicAffairs Books. Archived from the original on October 17, Retrieved May 24, Gotham Gazette.
Italy mourns 'fisherman-mayor' who stood up to the mafia
November 3, Oxford University Press. Here's Why". January 15, New York. Retrieved July 5, The Caucus. Retrieved March 14, July 9, Archived from the original on August 30, Retrieved June 25, Many residents also demanded to know why Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani, who has enjoyed strong support in the city's Hasidic neighborhoods, did not go to Brooklyn last night to address their concerns.
March 19, Archived from the original on June 27, On The Issues. Archived from the original on May 2, Retrieved May 24, — via isebrand. Retrieved March 9, Retrieved October 10, Associated Press. February 18, Archived from the original on February 21, Miringoff January 31, Retrieved September 27, New York: Little, Brown and Company. Rallies Around Lazio". Archived from the original on August 14, Retrieved October 5, Archived from the original on January 16, New York Daily News. Sunday Herald Sun Australia. The Cincinnati Post Associated Press.
October 12, Archived from the original on December 9, Archived from the original on September 30, Retrieved June 12, Archived from the original on August 22, Retrieved September 6, Archived from the original on June 11, May 14, Archived from the original on October 10, Retrieved September 29, May 15, That changes now".
The American Prospect. Archived from the original on October 11, January 26, Politics sec. Retrieved January 27, ABC News. BBC News. July 12, The Guardian. Archived from the original on May 6, Archived from the original on July 21, The Economist. July 28, October 24, Archived from the original on September 3, Retrieved March 4, March 2, Archived from the original on January 13, Retrieved November 30, War Against Terror. Retrieved September 3, Archived from the original on November 9, Al in New Slam at Rudy". Retrieved August 1, Retrieved December 1, May 17, Mornings with Paula Zahn.
CNN Transcripts. December 24, September 3, Retrieved November 6, Archived from the original on November 15, Chemical and Engineering News. Archived from the original on November 10, Retrieved July 9, Archived from the original on June 21, January 31, Archived from the original on September 26, August 31, United States Institute of Peace.
Archived from the original PDF on June 1, Tough Talk", Time Magazine , September 3, , p. May 31, United States Department of State. Supporters of Iranian Group Face Scrutiny". January 10, CBC News.
December 20, Polling Report. Retrieved November 8, NBC news. Retrieved November 7, Rashbaum November 10, Retrieved November 10, The Politico. To hide Hamptons trips? Retrieved December 26, Archived from the original on December 6, Retrieved December 6, Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on January 8, Retrieved December 21, Retrieved January 30, Retrieved January 9, January 9, January 30, Retrieved March 3, Rasmussen Reports.
January 17, Archived from the original on January 19, Retrieved July 25, CBS News. Retrieved August 31, Retrieved December 11, Quite Busy". Archived from the original on February 9, Sean Hannity. Fox News Channel. March 23, Archived from the original on March 28, November 16, February 24, Retrieved January 16, April 15, Retrieved April 21, April 20, Retrieved April 20, September October 11, Retrieved October 15, Retrieved February 25, Retrieved July 28, Tampa Bay Times. Jeff Sessions, R-Alabama, who have become fixtures at his campaign rallies. CNN Wire.
July 19, September 9, Retrieved May 2, October 2, Retrieved June 7, Retrieved December 10, Retrieved January 13, Retrieved July 16, The Hill. Retrieved May 5, USA Today. Archived from the original on May 28, Retrieved May 28, June 4, The group, called Avviso Pubblico or Public Warning, offers mostly moral support to administrators who fight organized crime in their towns. Sicily's Cosa Nostra, Calabria's 'Ndrangheta and Campania's Camorra dominate the economies in their regions, often with the help of corrupt or complacent administrators, and in the 21st century they have spread their tentacles to northern Italy.
Since , town councils have been dissolved for mafia infiltration. Last month, Italy's central government sacked the local administration of Corleone in Sicily, the fictional hometown of Mario Puzo's "Godfather" and the real birthplace of two of Cosa Nostra's most feared bosses. Italy's Senate approved a bill in June that would give police and magistrates more tools to crack down on threats, but the legislation has yet to be passed by the lower house.
In June, some local administrators who belong to Avviso Pubblico were joined by residents and state officials in a march in Polistena, Calabria, the heartland of the 'Ndrangheta, to show solidarity for those menaced by the mob. The 'Ndrangheta, which investigators say is the biggest cocaine broker in Europe, has racked up the most threats to public officials so far this year. Polistena's Mayor Michele Tripodi received a bullet in the mail in March.
The 'Ndrangheta burned the car of Rosario Rocca, mayor of Benestare, who said of his town: "The state is absent.