Lultima volta che lho vista (Italian Edition)

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Landino's and Ficino's con- ceptions of the creative imagination can be seen as confronting two alter- nate ways of seeing: The prophet speaks from exile, but the words spoken are directed towards the human world. Divine fury makes Landino's poet prophetic, for the language of the poet- ic flight is distant from the human world and surpasses all human arts. But the poet is able to speak to the people and to lead them towards knowledge also through his divine experiences.

Ficino mediates between prophecy and mysticism and collapses their boundaries. In the Theologia platonica, he places the poet second after the philosopher among those who separate themselves from their bodies while in this life bk 13, ch 2. It is contemplation that creates this common activity. Ficino is aware of the mystical aspect of contemplation, but we have seen how he also warns of the dangers of such self- alienation and iso- lation. If this separation is car- ried too far, the thinker will lose contact with himself as well as with the human world.

Ficino roots poetic and prophetic divine fury into a medicinal frame- work, joining the Platonic abstraction to the condition of human flesh and to the madness of the lover. The danger of the boundlessness of the flight of the imagination is not just a philosophical danger, but a physical one as well. While Ficino understands the value of inner contemplation, he is still too closely linked with the human realm and with the process of living to allow the contemplator to disconnect permanently from that world. Nonetheless, the imagination plays a large role in the Neoplatonic search- es for knowledge: Throughout Ariosto's epic we have seen the warnings and demonstra- tions of the danger of separating from the self, especially through love and its resulting madness and loss of reason.

In this regard, Axiosto's poet seems less akin to Landino's divine poet than to the poet tied to the black bile of Ficino's De vita.


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Like Ficino, Ariosto moves towards a tone of acceptance of the dangers and duality of the imagination. In his Platonic works Ficino emphasizes imagination's negative pole, but still asserts the superiority of philosophy. Ariosto reworks these ideas within his own context and plays upon them, preserving some of their meaning while also parodying them. In the Furioso there is a fundamental sense that poetry has great value, even though its divinity is parodied.

But the idea of divinely inspired creativity is downplayed while, instead, the effects of love's passion on the poet are highlighted. In this sense, Ariosto shadows Ficino's genius, for he empha- sizes his own humanity. Lie is aware of the fact that melancholy is a part of the human being and a necessary ingredient in creation. Ariosto's work takes Landino's assertion that poetry leads to knowledge as a point of departure.

But instead of Landino's knowledge of the divine, what is ultimately emphasized in the Furioso is Ficino's concept of the importance of knowing one's human limitations. For Ariosto, Landino's assertion that poetry leads to knowledge is eclipsed by Ficino's concept of the importance of knowledge of the self Moreover, this self-knowledge, which allows the poet to manage his passions as best he can, leads to greater poetic ability.

For although poetry may lead to truth, the clearest truth Ariosto is cele- brating in the Furioso is his very own human poetic skill and his ability to use it to dazzle the reader. The narrator's self-reflexive comments serve not only to call attention to the fact that we are reading a poem, but also, and more importandy, to call attention to the poet's creative skill and to his control of the story.

While he is professing to be "one of us" by constantly acknowledging his own weakness in the struggle against madness, he is actually placing himself above the text and in control of the reader's desires and thoughts. While the beauty of the text may spark the reader's desire to read on, the path has been chosen by Ariosto.

The poet resembles Astolfo, soaring above us on the shimmering wings of his creation. But this is not an uncomplicated act. Like Ficino's poet, as well as his critic, Ariosto's genius is a struggling, human genius — one who not only knows the depths of suffering and depression, but must also accept that sadness and the downward flight of the imagination as indispensable elements of the genius with which one is gifted. Through melancholy, the poet and his creation are intimately linked to love's passion.

Ariosto uses this concept to illustrate the close connection between reason and love's madness not only in human life, but also in the workings of the imagination. He does this in order to place the poetic imagination above all else. Mazzotta successfully posits the perspective of the narrator, who is both inside and outside the work, as demonstrating the poet's "play of the poetic imagination, whereby the poet confronts and is enmeshed by the ambiguities of all values but transcends them" "Power," Both Astolfo and the poet work from a point of relative detachment, for they are able to see themselves and the world as the comedy it really is.

Orlando, however, is not a poetic creator but a passive reader and so he plunges into madness because of the shattering of his fictional image through the truth that was contained in the poetry of Medoro. Johnson Haddad uses the imagery of Orlando reading the poem to connect him with Medusa, Perseus and Narcissus, representing the dark side of self-con- frontation and poetry, for it can lead to creative failure and madness Masciandaro also connects Orlando to Narcissus in that he is unable to accept the fact that Angelica is the other, not shaped by his own image of her As Mazzotta has noted, Orlando's madness lacks the fluency of language, which needs to be retrieved by the imagina- tion "Power," The irony may be that while poetry and the imagina- tion make Orlando insane, his senses are restored thanks to Astolfo's flight of poetic imagination.

What in particular Astolfo brings to Orlando is the ability for a critical reading of creativity and poetry — he should be aware that it is human-made and be able to read beneath its apparent reality. In the Furioso, the culmination of the themes of reason, love, madness and imagination converge with Astolfo's restoration of Orlando's senses. At the same moment, Orlan- do is also "cured" of his love-sickness-although this is probably not a per- manent cure, Astolfo and the narrator will both lose themselves in love again The lovers in Ariosto's world display many conflicting aspects of human nature.

The imagination of desire and poetry's flight demonstrate that when the balance between these faculties is lost, black bile's melan- choly takes over and madness and loss of self results. Paradoxically, melan- choly both works through the imagination and depresses its creative work- ings, which can also lead to madness. This potential for madness, howev- er, is necessary for life, love and poetic creation, so the poet must accept the reality that the passions are part of us and are capable of ruling us.

There is a basic dichotomy underlying the Furioso; as in Ficino's text, you cannot remove the passions from the self, but the hope is that through rea- son you may also come to know yourself and so be capable of checking pas- sion's destructive power. While love and the imagination drive the poem and Orlando, and, ultimately, lead to the demise of both, it is the imagi- nation and love that also shape them and give them life.

And it is the col- lapse or the deliberate discarding of desire that ends the imaginative move- ment of the poem. The paradox is that if passion and the potential for madness are eliminated, art also fades: Ariosto's Orlando furioso shows that imagination is the focal point of the limitless activities that distinguish human beings from other living creatures, as well as from each other.

Orlando's madness tied to the hori- zontal nature of love's imagination and Astolfo's voyage to the moon con- nected to the vertical movement of the creative imagination's poetry are at opposite poles. Yet, behind these issues of love, insanity, and the thirst for — 25 — Julia M. Cozzarelli knowledge lies the very basic notion of language as the basis for all human reality.

The very different, yet ever fluctuating ties that these two charac- ters share with the creative imagination support their roles as personifica- tions of different approaches to language and life. As perceived by Ficino, these poles are, however, inseparable one from the other. There is no one figure in Ariosto's text that can be used as a key to unlock the door to earth- ly happiness; all the individual portraits must be gathered together into one unified frame that illustrates the complexity of human nature and of what has often been considered its distinguishing feature-the creative and poet- ic imagination.

Oxford University Press, Orlando Furioso. Crisis and Evasion in the Italian Renaissance. The Case of Rodamonte. De Panizza Lorch, Maristella. Three Books on Life. Carol Kaske and John Clark. The Poetics of Self-Confrontation. La fantasia e la memoria: Magic in Boiardo and Ariosto.

Battista and Bernardo Sessa, Scritti critici e teorici. Romance Epic Narrative in the Italian Renaissance. Dante Vision and the Circle of Knowledge. Ronald Bogue and Mihai I. Vorrei esprimere la mia profonda gratitudine a Laura Sanguineti White e ad Andrea Baldi, del dipartimento d'Italiano di Rutgers, per l'incoraggiamento e il sostegno offertomi nelle ricerche su questo soggetto. Alla dinamica che contrappone le figure dei consiglieri nelle tragedie dellavalliane allude Sanguineti White, Dal detto alla figura, Lo scontro, che in entrambe le tragedie oppone l'eroina al consigliere fraudolen- to e i servi fedeli ai servi malvagi, ha sempre per oggetto le emozioni e le passioni del sovrano.

La figura di Judit esempla in maniera particolarmente riuscita i dilemmi posti dal complesso rapporto fra la dimensione etica dell'agire umano e la sua efficacia concreta. Per l'appunto, non simula, dissimula. Della Valle, dal suo osservatorio di piccolo funzionario soggetto alla ruota della fortuna, assolve e giustifica l'utilizzo dell'unico strumento a dispo- sizione dei sottoposti per conservare un margine d'intervento autonomo nei confronti tanto del potere politico quanto della Chiesa.

In Tasso l'opposta valu- tazione delle due giovani donne si basa sull'antitesi dei fini perseguiti ed esula da ogni considerazione intorno al mezzo adottato. Della Valle ha ben presente la percezione sociale del ruolo, del com- portamento e persino del corpo della donna. Judit, in particolare, viene evocata nel prologo in termini di suprema bellezza: L'origine controriformista della lettura di Judit quale figura della Vergine e le imprevedibili conseguenze di tale accosta- mento vengono sondate nel saggio di Pietropaolo, "ludit, Femme Fatale of the Baroque Stage.

La descrizione della bellezza delle eroine, l'attenzione al loro abbigliarsi e le scene di seduzione sono da ricondurre a quest'ottica, prima che ad una specifica intenzione edonistica o voyeuristica dell'autore. Tuttavia, il suo invito ad Aman rappresenta per lui un'ascesa in termini di prestigio e di potere: Le due regine della terza tragedia. Isabella e Maria, sono invece delle vere sovrane, le cui caratteristiche saranno da esaminare insieme a quelle degli altri monarchi delle tragedie di Della Valle.

E il potere dato loro dalla bellezza, che seduce e innamora, legando il volere dell'uomo ai loro disegni. La protagonista tace a tutti i suoi progetti, persino alla serva Abra, alla quale pure mostra un animo coraggioso ed ispirato, che confida nella grazia e nella misericordia divina. L'eroina ebrea lascia agli interlocutori il compito di interpretare i suoi pensieri, senza svelarsi, a differenza del verboso Oloferne, che indulge ad una con- tinua, e forse compiaciuta, autoanalisi". Non abbiamo una descrizione caratterizzante di Judit; la sua avvenenza, ripetutamente menzionata e cele- brata, resta priva di connotati precisi.

Di lei conosciamo solo il colore dora- si veda in proposito l'analisi di Sanguineti White, Dal detto alla figura, Sotto le vesti di donna imbelle, timorosa e compiacente, combatte la propria guerra per la salvezza della patria, facendo leva, scientemente, sulle aspettative maschili. Vagao vede in lei un'umile prigioniera, desiderabile agli occhi del condottiero e dunque capace di guadagnare al servo-con- sigliere un insperato controllo sul proprio capo. Si tratta di un episodio centrale per importanza e incidenza strutturale, dove alle lusinghe dei sensi si somma la fascinazione della parola, capace di legare e avvincere.

Il ruolo chiave rivestito dalla parola rende questa scena di seduzione particolarmente suggestiva dal punto di vista metatestuale. E possibile infatti riconoscere in questi versi una riflessione sul potere persuasivo della parola e dell'immagine, elementi costitutivi di ogni opera teatrale. Fra 1 molti possibili esempi si veda, in particular modo, la risposta di Oloferne alle pressioni di Arimaspe, ai w. Per un diverso giudizio sulla ricezione di Judit tramite gli epiteti usati dai suoi interlocutori si veda Sanguineti White, Dal detto alla figura.

Nel trasformare la rhesis in ekphrasis Della Valle aggiunge un ulteriore livello al proprio intervento metatestuale. L'autore intrec- cia questa indagine conoscitiva ad un'analisi sui rapporti tra parola e immagine, condotta facendo continuo ricorso al campo metaforico della visione come pittura interiore, operazione che incoraggia la lettura della scena della toletta di Judit quale intenzionale presa di posizione all'interno del dibattito sui rapporti tra poesia e pittura.

Attraverso la sua dettagliata descrizione dello svestirsi e del successivo abbigliarsi dell'eroina, Vagao lusinga la fantasia del padrone sulle gioie del- l'eros che questi si attende e ne accarezza il desiderio, rispondendo appieno all'invito di Oloferne che lo esorta ad un resoconto minuzioso: Tutto di', nulla lascia. Tessari rilegge la natura obliqua della seduzione di Oloferne entro il "dramma cosmico" che a suo avviso strut- tura l'intera tragedia.

La forza d'attrazione della bellezza, possibile strada di accesso a Dio, diviene fonte di labirintico smarrimento per il principio maschile rappresentato dal comandante assiro. Questo motivo viene sviluppato nel successivo intervento di Oloferne, che, interrompendo la narrazione del servo, esclama: Vaga figura formi a l'alma, del ver piena.

Viene qui rapidamente delineata una vera e pro- pria teoria della ricezione: A differenza dei suoi interlocutori, Oloferne non sa misurare il potere della parola come arma di offesa e di difesa, ma rimane prigioniero di una con- cezione materialistica ed elementare dei conflitti.

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Tale consapevolezza affiora invece nei commenti del coro, che, a con- clusione del racconto di Vagao, approfondisce l'analisi dei rapporti tra parola e immagine segnalando le differenze tra i due strumenti e decretan- do il trionfo della resa verbale, ovvero della poesia: Smuove, travolve, accende, e contra lei un cuor mal si difende. In questo passo, il coro si sofferma sugli effetti della parola e dell'immagine, insistendo sull'uso manipolatorio a cui questi mezzi possono essere piegati. Della Valle, dunque, non solo interviene nel se- colare dibattito sul rapporto tra pittura e poesia, ma assegna alla propria indagine un valore conoscitivo ed etico in sintonia col tema fondamental- mente politico delle sue tragedie.

La censura morale del coro assume, quindi, valore di ammoni- mento per gli spettatori, sottoposti, nel quotidiano, a sollecitazioni simili. Al tempo stesso, in un'ulteriore torsione cognitiva, la tragedia cerca, a sua volta, di 'sedurli' proprio nel momento in cui svela i meccanismi della per- suasione.

Dopo questa premessa sull'insidia di un discorso congegnato ad arte, inteso a soggiogare il destinatario, il coro passa ad una notazione sul potere dell'immagine e della parola: Il primato della parola viene sancito dal ritratto — in versi — che Vagao delinea per il proprio signore.

La rhesis del mezzano si trasforma in ekphrasis, descrivendo un vero e proprio quadro, anzi un dittico, in quan- to comprende anche la tavola elaborata dall'eroina. Dapprima sembra che sia Vagao inconsapevole stru- mento divino a gestire le passioni del capo assiro. Vagao premette, infatti, al pro- prio racconto la sintesi dei pregi di Judit: Accecato da un pregiudizio misogino, Vagao non riconosce nella "vaga favella" della sua interlocutrice la stessa arma manipolatrice di cui egli si serve nei confronti del proprio signore.

Nel costruire il proprio quadro, il servo dedica ampio spazio all'evo- cazione degli apparati fastosi che fanno da sfondo alla toletta della bella ebrea cfr. L'eroina accetta la sfida e si mostra in tutto il suo splendore. La sua bellezza e il suo fascino sono le armi con cui assume il controllo della situazione fino a capovolgerla, facen- do del voyeur un proprio strumento tramite il quale inebriare e confondere Oloferne: Bisogna tuttavia prestar fede solo in parte a tale strategia di autorappresentazione: Nella descrizione della Judit Della Valle sembra aderire alle teorie di Castiglione, solo che qui l'eroina non mostra una mano o un piede, ma tutte le sue grazie segrete.

L'eroina persegue, infatti, i propri scopi senza mentire. Le basta tacere, senza dover accettare, ad esempio, il fine che implicitamente le attribuisce Vagao: Judit non simula, ma dissimula "onestamente": L'eroina ebrea vince la sua battaglia con le proprie armi, rima- nendo fedele a se stessa e alla sua causa fino alla fine.

Tutte le sue parole suggeriscono un'attesa fervida, ma pudica, della notte in arrivo: E come se l'ebrea volesse dichiaratamente prendere le distanze dalla hyhris colpevole degli Assiri. A questo punto la protagonista passa alla controffensiva, invitando Vagao ad assistere a quel che resta della sua toletta: Questa scena costituisce il secondo pannello del dittico w.

Davanti al servo di Oloferne, e quindi per suo tramite nell'immaginazione del duce assiro, ella non a caso si riveste. Judit costruisce se stessa come opera d'arte, orientando tramite una "divina favella" la percezione visiva della propria bellezza. Raffaelli, Semantica tragica, L'eroina finisce col gestire il gioco, sovvertendo dall'interno le regole imposte dagli avversari. La scena dell'abluzione costituisce il momento chiave di questa dis- simulata esibizione.

L'eroina mostra al mezzano l'origine naturale del pro- prio fascino, in un passo di ricercata fattura: L'analogia con la pit- tura viene introdotta dall'eroina nel momento in cui assume un ruolo atti- vo nel definire la propria immagine. Vagao, in veste di poeta, sottolinea gli effetti del rituale di Judit: Judit raffina la propria bellezza servendosi di mezzi puri e legittimi.

Nel primo quadro, infatti, la protagonista, ignara dello sguardo del servo, si spoglia, divenendo emblema della naturalezza che seduce nel suo manifestarsi, mentre nel secondo, tracciato consapevolmente da Judit, l'eroina si riveste, arricchendo il proprio fascino tramite l'artificio. Se, infatti, la rhesis di Vagao ampli- fica la messa in scena dell'uso strumentale della retorica e delle arti visive, costruendo una rappresentazione della lotta controriformistica per il con- trollo delle coscienze, tale figurazione si colloca all'interno di un discorso di carattere etico sul mondo, come illustrano i commenti del coro.

La diversa statura morale dei due antago- nisti si associa, infatti, a due differenti strategie di comportamento. Vagao mente, si mostra servile e adulatore nei confronti di Oloferne e, se neces- sario, nei confronti di Judit, sebbene manipoli l'uno per brama di potere e disprezzi l'altra come prigioniera di guerra. Le figure femminili, in particolar modo, sembrano le depositarie privilegiate della misteriosa e imperscrutabile azione divina, proprio grazie alla posizione marginale in cui vorrebbe confinarle lo sguardo maschile. Rutgers University Opere citate Accetto, Torquato.

A cura di Salvatore Nigro. The Invention of the Renaissance Woman. A cura di Adriano Prosperi. Perspectives on Gender and the Italian Renaissance. A cura di Marylyn Migiel e Juliana Schiesari. Esemplari di tipologie femminili dalla letteratura europea. A cura di Vanna Gentili. I La scena del testo. A cura di Carlo Ossola. Centro studi sul teatro medioevale e rinascimentale, Retorica e drammaturgia secentesche. The Essays of Joan Kelly. Chicago University Press, Women of the Renaissance. A cura di Enrico Cernili et al.

Women in Italian Culture. A cura di Ada Testaferri. Semantica tragica di Federico Della Valle. Dal detto alla figura. Le tragedie di Federico Della Valle. Tragedie, commedie, pastorali nella drammaturgia europea fra ' e ' A cura di Silvia Carandini. Despite his acknowledgement of the possible religious symbolism in the poem and his recognition of parallels between this episode and Marino's Dicerie sacre, Giovanni Pozzi reads the scene as a sign of Marino's acknowledgement of the debate between different poetic styles and his defence of his own new style.

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Much of the passage's difficulty lies in deciphering the meaning of the nightingale, both as a symbol in Marino's time and as a specific entit ' with- in Marino's poem. Giannantonio, "Natura e arte, This interpretation, while interesting, fails to take into account the musician's regretful attitude toward the dead bird, his blaming him- self for the death, and his burial of the nightingale. Mussio tion of the musician's song, an essentially positive, negative, or neutral and naturai figure?

The musician's grief at its death may be explained without recourse to allegory, but his enigmatic gesture of burying the bird within his lute cannot. The nightingale's large role in both the religious and secular literary traditions also makes it a rather charged figure. In troubadour poetry the nightingale served a variety of functions; it was a marker of the natural as opposed to the human; it also represent- ed springtime, sexuality, and a renewal of life;5 it was a companion to the mournful lover or one that disputed with the lover. Marino's reliance on Famiano Strada's Prolusiones academicae for the nightingale scene.

Imitating the style of Claudianus, Castiglione recounts a story in which a lute player, toward sunset, finds shade beneath All translations from Marino's texts cited are my own. Coelho offers a translation of 52 of Strada's 58 lines, omitting a translation of the final four lines describing the nightingale's death and lines Coelho, "The Lutenist," Then the nightin- gale of the neighouring wood, called the muse of the place, the harmless "inoxia" siren, hears him and comes near him, and resting on the branch- es just above him, sings back to itself whatever the musician plays.

Strada's version, written in Latin, continues to emphasize the competition between the two — the musician exploring all the potential of sound of his instru- ment and the nightingale replying until its voice cannot match the great- ness expressed by the musician. At this point the nightingale dies. Coehlo and Pozzi have analyzed to a certain extent the differences between Marino's version and his source text.

Yet there remains much to be explored in the comparison.

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Influenced in part by Petrarch's nightingale poems,ii Marino alters radically the situation of the episode, redefining the two cen- tral characters of the scene and the relationship between them. One of the principal ways in which Marino's version departs from its source text is that it makes explicit that amatory situation of the musician. In contrast, Marino emphasizes the amatory quality of the lute player's music: The musician himself is described as a "solitario amante" VII, The flight of Marino's lover recalls the speaker in Petrarch's sonnet 10 who runs toward nature and away from the "palazzi," "reatri" and "logge" and the temptations to virtue that these locations in the city imply.

The "shade" of night is less shelter from the sun than a flight from the psychological reality of the Marino, L'Adone e Commento, Pozzi cites Petrarch's sonnets 10 and 31 1. For other examples of theme of the lover's flight to woods see Petrarch's , , , , in the Rime sparse. The double covering of the thick forest and the dark sky stresses the lover's entrance into a pristine natural world in which the lover's imagination mingles: Because this world is closed off from the one he flees, the lover hopes to find consolation in it.

His arrival at the forest is a purposeful flight from something, not as in Strada's episode, a fortuitous opportunity to escape the day's heat. By emphasizing the amatory situation of the musician Marino directs our attention to the lute player's emotional state and mutes the theme of competition so important in Strada's version. In Marino's version the nightingale is felt to be more an intrusion upon the solitary lover than a mere competitor for musical supremacy. While Strada and Marino both feature the increasing frustration of the musician at hearing his music repeated, Marino stresses throughout the emotional quality of the lute player's song.

As soon as the musician hears his notes repeated. Strada has him increase the level of difficulty, without any reference to the music's emotional colouring: As in Petrarch's sonnet , where one finds the grieving lover that is accompanied throughout the night by the nightingale, "et tutta notte par che m'accompagne" "and all night it seems to accompany me" , here the "miser rossignuol" VII, Although Marino's lover will soon lose his focus on his love and turn toward defeating the nightin- gale, this space allows Marino to establish a more complex relationship between the lover and the bird.

The redefinition of the singer as lover prepares for Marino's most important manipulation of Strada's text — the deepening of the relationship between the nightingale and the man. While Strada describes the bird coming near to the musician, Marino stresses its wilful descent from high in the trees, and while Strada has it rest on the branches, Marino has the nightingale come to rest on the singer's head. Neither Strada's verses, nor Petrarch's two "nightingale" poems can be sources for the nightingale's actions in this scene.

While in sonnets 10 and the nightingale's lament is a reminder of the speaker's deeper cares and a spur to virtue, these poems depict a rather loose relationship between the lover and the nightingale. Both figures are absorbed in their own sorrows, and there is no indication that the nightingale has any deeper interest in the lover than in using his music as a catalyst for the expression of its own song.

In contrast, in Marino's version the nightingale is pushed to the centre of the scene — no longer is it merely part of the landscape, as in Petrarch's "nightingale" son- nets. No longer is it a separate, solitary mourner that only casually affects the soul of the lover. No longer can it be merely a reflection of the poet in love. Now it is an active participant in the other's sorrow. It descends, lamenting and repeating to itself the lover's sorrowful words, having inter- rupted its own sweet murmuring in its own language to investigate the intrusion of the lover's words VII, The bird descends to the low- est branches as it listens and repeats the words of the lover, until it rests on the head of the lover VII, Interpreting Nightingales, I have not found such an instance.

Mussio descending and slowly but continually drawing near the lover: The descent of the nightingale to the top the lover's head appears forced and unnatur- al. Pozzi explains it as Marino's evocation of an allegorical icon of Music, which featured a nightingale upon the head of a human figure. More likely, this physical closeness signals its emotional closeness to the musi- cian, its deep participation in his sorrow, and its ptirity of motivation. It does not seem poised for a normal competition, for it does not take the normal opposing position and attitude of one entering into an agon with another.

Its descent to the head of the musician is both a bold and inno- cent gesture. If this is to be a "pugna," as Marino's language at several points seems to demand, then it will be a competition of a different type. Marino mitigates the competitive aspect of the scene further by stress- ing the nightingale's desire merely to repeat, imitate, and emulate the singer. The nightingale's efforts are evident throughout its interaction with the singer.

As it descends to the head of the musician, it repeats his notes: Pozzi notes that other allegorical figures in these cantos, however, have their sources in Poliziano and Claudianus Marino, L'Adone e Commento, Colombo notes how Marino manipulates the images to his own purposes, often transposing features of one of Ripa's icons onto another Colombo, Cultura e tradizione, The accompaniment of the nightingale to the lover found in the lyric tradition is intensified to a degree not found else- where.

The connection between the nightingale's sympathy and its repeti- tion is felt in Marino's phrasing which describes the repetition as occurring even as the nightingale nears the lover: The simultaneous movement toward the lover and the repetition of his words suggests that the imitation is no mere disinterested echo.

Indeed, Marino seems to reinvest the sonic repetition with Echo's desire for contact with her beloved. In any case, in this passage the imitation assumes a positive valence that is absent in Strada's version. For Strada, the nightin- gale's imitation is marked by its virtuosity and garrulousness, not by any sympathy with the musician.

As Coehlo points out, Strada's nightingale often seeks to outdo the musician, extending its responses beyond the imi- tation of the musician. Indeed, Marino never gives the bird the ostentation that would border on hubris suggested in Strada's version. Rather, its per- sistence is defined by its nearly servile and tireless — "infaticabile" VII, 46, 7; untiring — repetition of the musician.

Mussio "al paragon sovrasti" VII, Marino's use of diminu- tives throughout the scene to describe the nightingale "augellin" VII, In order to dramatize this sympathetic attitude of the nightingale with the man, Marino displaces most descriptions of technical virtuosity in the scene itself from the nightingale onto the singer. This marks a departure from Strada's version, which describes in detail the nightingale's responses. Strada reports the nightingale's third response to the musician in this way: Now [the nightingale] varies the song in short phrases and clips it with minute mea- sures, and responds with a tremulous mouth.

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One imagines a brief and controlled variation on the player's theme, not an extended improvisation, as in Strada's scene. And if the nightingale surpasses the song of the musician, one imagines that it does so in more perfectly singing the musician's lament. Marino places the detailed description of the nightingale's virtuosity in the stanzas preceding the account of the competition, a strategy that pre- serves the purity of the nightingale's attitude toward the singer.

In Mercury's preface to the account, Marino rehearses the well-known tech- nical virtuosity of the nightingale, borrowed from Strada and, most likely, Pliny as well. Marino, L'Adone e Commento, The text in italics is my addition to the Coehlo translation, which does not account for these lines in Strada's Latin text as cited by Pozzi. It has a "gola lusinghiera" VII, This description encourages one to read this nightingale as slightly different from the one in the story, even though there are some textual connections between the two.

For instance, Mercury is prompted to recount the story by the nightingales "canto" VII, In the account of the competition Mercury also notes the nightingale's "garrula e faconda" VII, If Mercury's story exemplifies the technical virtuosity of the nightingale's song in general, it more forcefully describes a unique instance in which this virtuosity is linked to humility and purity. Even the adjectives "garrula" and "lascivetto" do not have a strongly negative quality.

The description of the nightingale's sadness and solitariness seems to outweigh the sexual and capricious qualities implied in the scene. Before the lover enters the wood the nightingale is described as alone, attentively awaiting the coming of dawn: This, too, is a detail not in Strada's account. The beech tree was used by Petrarch as a general sign for the purity of the solitary woods and the springtime. The sadness of the bird recalls the mythological element, which is tied closely to the nightingale's radical solitude and separateness.

Its await- ing the day and attending to the sun were part of the lyric repertory, but this detail also stresses the darkness in which the bird is shrouded. In Bembo's lyrics, too, the beech is figure in the ideal landscape, as in sonnet 46 Bembo, Prose e rime. This act is even more notable for its contrast with the birds described in Venus' garden VII, Here, through Mercury, Marino points to the paradoxical state of the birds, that they are essentially solitary, though not alone, as they sing hidden amid the trees.

They are engaged in various dialogues with other birds, yet they remain apart and essentially solitary. This idea is evoked clearly in the account of the mourning dove, which Marino calls "solitaria, non sola" VII, The "tortorella" here, in contrast to the traditional portrait, does not descend from its branch to the ruin of the fallen elm tree as it mourns the loss of its spouse: Orfano tronco in secca piaggia aprica d'olmo tocco dal ciel la tortorella non cerca no, ma sovra verde pianta solitaria, non sola, e vive e canta VII, Rather, like the other birds, it will remain hidden and alone.

Such a portrait of "normal" birds makes the nightingale's descent in Mercury's account remarkable. Indeed, even the nightingale of Venus' garden is hid- den and separate as Adonis listens to it. The purity and humility of the engaging nightingale contrasts with the scornful resistance of the lover to its accompaniment. This exaggerated reaction points to the imbal- ance in the lover.

His flawed relation to the nightingale is part of this larg- er problem, and this is reflected in his intrusion into the space of the for- est.

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In contrast to the nightingale, which sings its gentle laments "dolcissi- mamente" VII, Thus, the lover "trafitto d'Amor" VII, 42, 8; "pierced by Amor" , as he strikes the air and infects it with his laments, seems out of harmony with the world, sick, and in need of correction. In Part I of the Lira, Marino emphasizes the night's horror of the lover's anguished "stridi: The nightingale brings a sweetness that calms the lover, returns nature to its proper state. This is seen in the contrast between the effect of the lover singing alone, whose song keeps even "Sonno" VII, Now the song seems to be in harmony with the sleep that is fit for the night time.

This participation and correction, with its Orphic over- tones, however, will be short-lived because of the lover's growing resistance. In general Marino follows Strada in noting the singer's resistance to the nightingale's participation in his song. After a series of exchanges, both ver- sions reach a similar turning point in the contest when the musician decides that he will win or break his instrument. Yet, while both versions conclude by attributing the failure of the nightingale to its smallness and its simplicity and naturalness, Marino's manipulation of the stages of the contest gives greater prominence to the bird's opposition to war and vio- lence.

In Strada's version, when the musician produces warlike sounds the nightingale betrays no difficulty in matching this martial quality: Only after the musician raises his technique does he silence the bird. While there are hints of martial sounds in some words in the lute player's final passage, such as "strepit" 47; "he clamours", my translation , one feels the stress on the musician's increased work: In contrast, in Marino's text when the singer begins to imitate the movements of a "fier conflitto" "fierce conflict" and a "confuso assalto" "confused assault" and the "bellicosi strepiti del'armi" "warlike clanging of arms"; VII, The deleterious effects of war and violence on music in general is indicated shortly later in the canto when Mars is predicted to cause the ruin of both sisters of Poetry and Music VII, The "timpani" recall the bacchanalian rage described in the idyll on Orpheus in La Sampogna, published in Just as Orpheus brings all of nature under his spell except for a violent human element, so here the nightingale gains the sympathy of the world except for the musician's.

Just as the madness of the ecstatic women drowns out Orpheus' verses, the enraged musician overwhelms the nightingale. Indeed, Marino stresses the nightingale's victimization by the musician's violence and rage. In both Strada's and Marino's versions the musician's resistance to the nightingale's counterpoint is negative, but in Marino's episode the resis- tance is more pronounced. Marino emphasizes the musician's anger by having his last passage, the one after the direct challenge to the nightingale, extend to three and a half stanzas VII, , compared with the several short exchanges with the bird up to that point.

Marino notes that now the musician does not stop to wait for the nightingale's response: Rather, he will try to overwhelm the other, severely misreading the intent of the simple and natural creature and revealing an emotional element not found in Strada's passage. Indeed, it is difficult to accept that the resistance in Marino's text derives simply from the musician's pride in his technique. Marino's careful situating of the scene in a lyric setting helps define the peculiarity of the musician's strong resistance.

While the lyric tradition has the lover inviting the nightingale to mourn with him, this lover guards his solitude. Marino himself offers a more traditional view of the lover- nightingale relationship in a poem from the first part of his Lira, in which he writes of his grief at the death of a nightingale, a companion to his sor- row: And, at a certain point, he no longer defends the singularity of his love, but rather his solitude itself.

Marino, Rime boscherecce, The musician is changed, as if shaken out of a violent rage, and repentant, he blames him- self for the death. Indeed, the concurrence of the return of the day with the death of the bird and the musician's grief emphasizes this return to ratio- nality.

No such crisis of conscience is found in Strada's episode. Nor does Strada's musician assume an active role in the mourning or in the burial of the bird within his instrument. In contrast, the death of the nightingale deeply impresses itself upon Marino's lover, but not, as in the poem from the Lira cited above, because he loses a companion to his sorrow. The musician's sorrow here is less well defined, though there is a strong sense of regret and guilt in him: The musician perceives clear- ly that the death of the nightingale is no longer a purely natural event, but rather the result of its interaction with him.

The acts of burying the nightingale within his instrument and becoming a witness to its story are tinged with repentance and conviction about the nightingale's heroism. This act of writing with the treasured feather of the nightingale is not merely a gratuitous detail, but points out the deep irony of the victory of the musician, that though he promised to give up his instrument if he did not win, he renounces it anyway. The burial of the bird within the instru- ment implies the destruction of the instrument. His desired solitude has been converted into a need to bear testimony to another.

The way in which Marino alters Strada's description of the nightin- gale's death itself ennobles it. Pliny may be the source of both Strada's and Marino's text, at least in regard to the death of the nightingale.

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Pliny writes that nightingales often competed in singing with each other to the death. Requisiti minimi: OS: Requisiti consigliati: OS: Requisiti minimi: OS: Ubuntu Requisiti consigliati: OS: Ubuntu Mostra tutto. Clicca qui per visualizzarli. Recensioni dei giocatori. Recensioni globali:. Tipo di recensione. Per visualizzare le recensioni all'interno di un periodo, clicca e trascina una selezione su un grafico qui sopra o clicca su una barra specifica.

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